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Free Radical Biology and Medicine
(FRBM) 《自由基生物学与医学》

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自由基生物学与医学
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5.784
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《自由基生物学与医学》是一门新兴的边缘学科。机体各种内外环境无时无刻不在生成自由基,自由基在生物体内很容易与蛋白质、多不饱和脂肪酸反应,引发氧化修饰作用,成为机体衰老及衰老相关疾病的主要诱因。因此,本课程主要介绍自由基、ROS和RNS的概念及其与肿瘤、动脉硬化、糖尿病等疾病的关系,以及自由基生物学与医学研究的一些最新进展,阐明了自由基与衰老相关疾病,如色斑、动脉粥样硬化、老年性白内障和痴呆等发生的分子机制,抗氧化剂相关理论和在其生物学中的作用。对于拓展研究生视野和知识面,为下一步研究生设计和完成学位课题提供了很好的知识基础和科研思路。

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Published 2012年1月,Volume 52,Issue 7

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This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24–48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2 h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors’ and the Tibetans’ high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin–NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic stress.
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